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Uuderstanding Stroke

Prevention of stroke

About 10-15% of ischaemic stroke survivors will develop another stroke within 5 years of their TIA / stroke. It is therefore important that the underlying pathophysiological cause of stroke be identified in a timely manner and treated appropriately to minimise the risk of another stroke. There are a number of ways that a doctor can help.

Diet Plan
Pay attention to your body
  • Monitor blood pressure. Make sure you comply with your drug regimen as instructed by your doctors

  • Stop smoking >​ Reduce alcohol intake > Exercise regularly > Reduce your stress

  • Pay attention to the risk factors of stroke including diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease and history of stroke

  • Eat a balanced diet. Apps such as ‘Foodswitch’ may help you make better choices when purchasing foods from the supermarket

Medications to Control Risk Factors
Common medications for secondary stroke prevention include:
  • E.g. Aspirin, Clopidogrel, Ticagrelor

  • Main effect: inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation, prevent thrombosis and block blood vessels to minimise the risk of recurrent stroke

  • Potential side effects of gastro-intestinal upset, gastrointestinal bleeding, skin bruising, bleeding gums or nosebleeds

Antiplatelet agents


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Lipid lowering therapy

  • Statins, Ezetrol, PCSK9 inhibitors

  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterols

  • Reduce the risk of stroke by protecting blood vessels

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  • Usually prescribed to patients with atrial fibrillation. Antiplatelet agents are not effective in preventing ischaemic stroke in this group of patients

  • Inhibition of coagulation mechanism can prevent thrombosis and blockage of blood vessels, reducing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation by about 60%

Blood pressure lowering tablets

  • The usual blood pressure target after stroke is <130/80mmHg unless otherwise specified by your doctor

  • Follow doctors' instructions and take medications on time

  • Regular monitoring of blood pressure recommended. Do not increase or decrease the dose or stop taking the drug unless told to do so by your doctor

  • If you feel unwell or have abnormal blood pressure after taking blood pressure tablets, seek medical attention immediately

Medications for diabetes

  • Prevent recurrent ischaemic stroke 

  • Carotid endarterectomy

  • Carotid or vertebral artery stent insertion for recurrent ischemia

Surgical Treatment
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